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    Cleft: Symbol at the beginning of music that tells the reader where the notes are for that particular staff. There are several kinds, including: Treble Cleft, Bass Cleft, and Alto Cleft

    Key Signature: 
    A Key signature is the sharps and/or flats found at the beginning of each line that tell you what notes will be made sharp or flat automatically.

    Time Signature: A time signature is the numbers at the beginning of every line of music. The top number tells how many beats are in each measure, and the bottom number tells what type of note gets the beat. (A 4 on the the bottom says that the quarter note gets the beat, a 2 on the bottom and the half note gets the beat)


    Col Legno: To strike the strings of the instrument with the back of the bow instead of pulling the bow hair across the strings. This makes a percussive ‘hitting’ sound

    Arco: with strings instruments, this means to play with the bow and draw it across the strings. The most common way to play string instruments.


    Pizzacato: A way to play string instrument by plucking the strings with a finger, instead of with a bow across the strings. This creates a soft sharp note that can be found in a variety of different types of music


    Anacrusis: This is also referred to as a ‘pick up’, or ‘upbeat’. In music, when there are notes before the first full measure of music, this is called an Anacrusis. 


    Slur: A notation in music that means the notes it ‘embraces’ or touches, should be played without break. (On the same bow stroke)


    Ledger Line: A line or several lines used to show music notes above or below the normal staff.


    Dynamics: In music, this symbol tells the player how loud or how soft to play the music. 


    Staccato: In music, when dots are located underneath/above the note head, telling the player to play each note short and disconnected from the other notes.